Lewis Concept of Acids and Bases: In 1923, scientist Gilbert Lewis proposed a more general concept of acids and bases. Created by Svante Arrhenius, the idea was that acids were a substance that would disassociate in water to yield ions that were electrically charged. The theory can be expanded to other solvents besides water. Finally, the Lewis definition of acids and bases describes “acids as electron-pair acceptors and bases as electron-pair donors”. It is characterized by simplicity. 2. List of Arrhenius Acids. It is restricted in solutions The Lewis definition has the following advantages and disadvantages: Advantages 1. In the previous article, we have studies the Arrhenius theory, Bronsted Lowry concept of acids and bases. The Arrhenius theory of acids and bases states that “an acid generates H + ions in a solution whereas a base produces an OH – ion in its solution”. Thus transition metal ions such Cu2+, Fe3+.. and compounds with electron deficient from the octet such as BF3 etc are Lewis acids. In this article, we shall study the Lewis concept of acids and bases, its merits and demerits. He was also an early discoverer of the effects of increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, proposing that air temperatures would rise, a phenomenon Lewis defined the acid as species which are able to accept electron pair(s). It was used to provide a modern definition of acids and bases, and followed from Arrhenius's work with Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald in establishing the presence of ions in aqueous solution in 1884. One would be a hydrogen ion. This concept is based on the electronic theory of valency. Bases, on the other hand, would yield hydroxide ions. Disadvantages The Arrhenius acid base theory was introduced in the late 19th century. Disadvantages 1. The Bronsted-Lowry theory defines “an acid as a proton donor and a base as a proton acceptor”. 2. Arrhenius acid-base theory is the most restrictive theory requiring the compound to have an H + or OH – and to be soluble in water. In this book Arrhenius first describes the “hot-house theory ”of the atmosphere, stating that the Earth’s temperature is about 30 degrees warmer than it would be due to the“ heat-protection action of gases contained in the atmosphere,”a theory based on ideas developed by Fourier, Pouillet, and (especially) Tyndall. This led to Arrhenius receiving the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903. It is more general and includes the definitions given by Arrhenius and Bronsted -Lowry. Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) was an accomplished physicist and chemist, winning the 1903 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his electrolytic theory of dissocation. Arrhenius involved himself in the eugenics movement by joining the Swedish Society for Racial Hygiene, a group focused on researching and promoting the benefits of controlled reproduction in humans (Broberg & Roll-Hansen, 2005). In 1903 Svante August Arrhenius (1859–1927) received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his electrolytic theory of dissociation, which states that molecules of acids, bases, and salts dissociate into ions when dissolved in water. The Arrhenius definition of acid-base reactions is a development of the "hydrogen theory of acids".
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