The actual incubation temperatures slightly deviated from the set values and are provided in Tables 1 and 2. PLoS ONE. 1a–c) but, starting from the 256-nuclei (young syncytial blastoderm) stage, all cleavages are superficial (Fig. Developmental rates during the former two stages are quite variable (Fig. Although the life cycle of C. maculatus takes place by and large in one spot, first on the surface of a cowpea seed and then under that surface, and does not imply movement between different thermal environments, this beetle’s thermal phenotype varies in the course of ontogeny and different stages seem to scale disproportionately with temperature. Hershberger WK, Hostuttler MA. Eggshell removal was found to be unnecessary for developmental staging (to the degree of detail required in the present study), except in some advanced embryos, but was helpful in obtaining clearer images of post-gastrulation stages. 5). The above estimates of the timing of the first cleavage differ substantially from those reported by a previous author  (5–6 h at 22 °C and 2 h at 30 °C). Note that the number of studies is lower than that mentioned in the Introduction as many previous experiments were carried out with mung, chickpea, and other legumes other than V. unguiculata as hosts. Coleoptera, Beetles. Furthermore, it is rare that such problems are put forward at all. USDA Tech Bull 1912, 2 vol. Bold solid lines with R2 values shown near them are plotted based on the results of linear regression analyses, which are summarized in Table 2. However, advanced embryos could be staged visually, owing to the presence of hardened and darkened cuticle. To divert the excessive moisture and thus slow down the deterioration of the seeds, 5–6 cardboard tubes per container were inserted in the mass of cowpea; this also facilitated collection because newly emerged beetles tended to gather on the surfaces of the tubes. For each developmental stage, the transition from 0 (all individuals are at the preceding stage) to 1 (all individuals have reached the next stage) was approximated with logistic regression using the brglm package  and the median transition time was determined at P = 0.5. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/, https://doi.org/10.1186/s12898-020-00318-2. Entomol Rev. van der Meer JM. The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), is an important pest of stored cowpea, Vigna ungiculata (L.) Walpers (Fabales: Fabaceae), with ample distribution in tropical and subtropical regions. As all of the previous development occurs with the embryo’s ventral side facing away from the seed, a fully sclerotized larva has to rotate its body inside the eggshell prior to boring into the cowpea seed tissues. RNase reverses segment sequence in the anterior of a beetle egg (Callosobruchus maculatus, Coleoptera). The author declares that he has no competing interests. or post as a guest, callosobruchus maculatus should be in sentence. You can contribute this audio pronunciation of callosobruchus maculatus to HowToPronounce dictionary. After fixation, the lower, aqueous phase of the fixative solution was removed and 100% methanol (chilled to -20 °C) was added. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. J Insect Physiol. The first one is, obviously, to check whether relative durations of any stages (i.e., proportions of total development) vary with temperature in any regular manner [26, 52]. 2014;9(9):e106268. Regression lines in a and b are plotted based on GLS model parameters fit by REML. California Privacy Statement, 3a), hatching (Fig. Tuda M, Kagoshima K, Toquenaga Y, Arnqvist G. Global genetic differentiation in a cosmopolitan pest of stored beans: effects of geography, host-plant usage and anthropogenic factors. Listen to the audio pronunciation in English. PubMed Central This dataset is the result of a study to assess 3-day and 7-day mortality of species closely related to target CPB (Colorado Potato Beetle – Leptinotarsa decemlineata) after exposure to the RNA-based biocontrol candidate for CPB. 5). Temporal development of Drosophila embryos is highly robust across a wide temperature range. Kutcherov, D. Stagewise resolution of temperature-dependent embryonic and postembryonic development in the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Sign in to disable ALL ads. Also, as noted above, the laboratory colony studied may have contained a significant fraction of the ‘active form’ of C. maculatus that has a prolonged post-feeding period . The eggs of the cowpea seed bettle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) Corkett CJ. Over the entire range of developmental temperatures, this reaction norm is best approximated by an asymmetrical bell-shaped curve, but, in the permissive (favorable) temperature range, developmental rate increases with temperature in a quasi-linear fashion [6, 27]. 1970;49(2):208–12. Phenotypic plasticity in a complex world: interactive effects of food and temperature on fitness components of a seed beetle. New York: Oxford University Press; 2009. 4c). de Sá LFR, Wermelinger TT, Ribeiro E, Gravina G, Fernandes KVS, Xavier-Filho J, et al. Dmitry Kutcherov. Pupation and adult eclosion were observed directly through an incision in the seed coat.
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