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Should, for example, only vaccines that have been proved effective and safe be used?26 How then should we define ‘effective’ and ‘safe’? Given the urgency of such situations, does the existence of uncertainty, which risks causing inadvertent harm, defy the principle of non-maleficence? While the latter will be determined in large part by the legal and factual nuances of a particular state, any human rights qualifications must nevertheless remain within the appropriate boundaries—ie, standards such as the Siracusa Principles. 59, 99 (1999). Cf. Fidler, supra note 1, at 183. Lawrence O. Gostin, The Model State Emergency Health Powers Act: Planning for and Response to Bioterrorism and Naturally Occurring Infectious Diseases, 288 Jama 622 (2002). With reference to these, the simplest, and arguably most legitimate, means by which to enforce mandatory vaccination would be through the creation of domestic legislation, which seeks to codify and elucidate a state’s stance on infectious disease control.42 Such measures, however, first require states to decide upon their limits of rights–restrictions and legal derogations. Absolute revocation of one’s rights, or ethical entitlements, is not legitimized for the purposes of disease control. Then do it again.) But, see CDC, Narcolepsy Following Pandemrix Influenza Vaccination in Europe, https://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/concerns/history/narcolepsy-flu.html (accessed Apr. Rates of refusal for measles vaccination are an example of this danger: these remain significant enough in some parts of the world to guarantee reservoirs, which lead to continuous recurrences of the disease.21 The recent measles outbreak in the USA is an example of this: in 2019, some 1282 individual cases of measles were confirmed in 31 states; the majority of these, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) noted, had not been vaccinated against the disease.22, Irrespective of who may give it, the law demands that consent, where possible, be informed—this is particularly so where risk is involved. (By virtue of the breadth of this topic, it cannot address all.11) It will argue, further, that such questions are pertinent for the simple reason that a pandemic, by its very status as a declared global health emergency, demands the answers to such questions now. (You choose any number of permanents and/or players with counters on them, then give each another counter of a kind already there. 290, 293 (2013). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (, The Trump Administration’s Flawed Decision on coronavirus Vaccine Injury Compensation: Recommendations for Changes, Transparency too little, too late? Any version of a card on the legal cards list is legal. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), The Right to Health: Fact Sheet No. While, at present, no vaccine against COVID-19 has been successfully developed, a staggering 70 potential vaccines are in development, three of which are already in clinical trial.8 The promise of a vaccine looms large: should one (or more) prove its worth, it could be used to bring an end to the present pandemic, be used to control ‘flare-ups’, and act as an insurance policy for any future outbreaks.9 The same principles underlie any vaccine: in the very least, prophylactic protection is provided to those at risk of contracting the disease; at best, the disease upon which the vaccine seeks to act will ultimately be eradicated. What if the usual safety mechanisms, being conventional, randomized, double-blinded trials, are not possible (or undesirable) in the face of a particularly pernicious pathogen? Penny Dreadful. For the purposes of this piece, of which the SARS-COV-2 outbreak is the contextual focus, only the term ‘pandemic’ will be used. *All payment will be calculated in USD. ICCPR, art. How does rotation work? A ‘public health emergency of international concern’ (PHEIC) is a formal declaration by the WHO, in accordance with the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005), of ‘an extraordinary event which is determined to constitute a public health risk to other States through the international spread of disease and to potentially require a coordinated international response’. Conscripted in response to concerns about the violation of individual human rights that may occur when a state acts to protect the public good,33 the Siracusa Principles set out the narrowly defined circumstances in international law in which human rights may be restricted in the face of a public (health) emergency; these principles may provide a useful guide, for example, when restricting individual freedoms (eg, the right to consent) in the public interest (eg, herd immunity) during a pandemic. Cave, supra note 12, at 281, citing European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Narcolepsy in Association with Pandemic Influenza Vaccination (A Multi-Country European Epidemiological Investigation) (2012). (You choose any number of permanents and/or players with counters on them, then give each another counter of a kind already there.

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