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environmental impacts of food production

We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. This enables comparison of stages in the food supply chain and could be applied further to benchmark food supply chains between each other. Innventia's paradox illustrates this concept: a marginal increase in packaging (i.e. The environmental impact of food products occur in all nodes of the supply chain; from production of inputs to agriculture, through farming, industry and retail to households. This figure hides the true sustainability impact of wasted food by type, which can be revealed by multiplying this data by the WRAP tonnages of each food wasted. Data used in the assessment were based on the literature that was assessed to be the most reliable and representative in terms of data quality and geographical scope. EoL impacts, that is, treatment of the wasted food, have very low contribution compared with other life cycle phases, but the EoL phase also takes into account benefits, for example, energy recovery from biogas process. K. Verghese, ... D. Sivaraman, in Emerging Food Packaging Technologies, 2012. R. Lillywhite, in Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry, 2010. There is extensive literature on assessment of sustainability impacts of food production, concentrating on effects of single or several stages of the food supply chain, although not many analyse the entire extent of the food supply chain from agricultural production to retail. (2018) reported impacts in simlar ranges, 15%–21% and 15.1%–15.7% of the total food consumption, respectively. Taija Sinkko, ... Serenella Sala, in Saving Food, 2019. Top ten wasted foods in the UK by ecological impact, created by combining data from WRAP (2008) with the EF factors of Barrett et al. Beretta et al. Impact measurement, where the categorized LCI flows are characterized into common equivalence units that are then summed to provide an overall impact category. farm sustainability indicators (OECD, 2001). The data transformation from the inventory to the potential impact (EP (j)i) is made by multiplying input/output of a particular substance (Q) with an equivalent factor (characterization): EP(j)i=QxEQ(j)i. 20.2. First, before food production even begins. (2002). Amounting to about one trillion US dollars’ worth. However, for novel processes or products, the LCA methodology needs to be adapted to the specific circumstances and questions posed. Livestock feed is produced out of different feed ingredients. In addition to almonds already discussed to represent all nuts and seeds and thus potentially affecting overestimation on water use impact of diet according to the Swedish recommendations, tomatoes were the only vegetable included in the basket. Giuseppe Vignali, Gianluca Vitale, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2017. Similarly, environmental impacts of food consumption by the average EU-28 citizen could be decreased from 7% to almost 10% by decreasing 50% of food waste in all phases of the food supply chain. Hence the inter-link between the two life cycle stages (packaging and product usage) should be captured. In this phase, the inventory parameters are sorted and assigned to specific impact categories. From studies such as this, and for cities in particular, an eco-skyline provides a powerful visual image of sustainability with building height representing the ecological impact of each consumer activity in global hectares per capita (see Fig. 20.3, such as bread, potatoes and apples, are significant in the overall picture of food waste from a sustainability point of view, becoming ‘top ten’ candidates because they are wasted in such vast quantities. Data quality analysis is made to develop a better understanding of the reliability of the indicator results in the LCIA profile (analysis frequently adopted). An area larger than China and 25% of the world’s fresh water supply is used to grow food that is never eaten. Impacts at one node often depend on activities at other nodes, and improvement options for food industry might often involve changes that result in large savings at other nodes rather than for the industry’s own emissions. Using this information allows a new figure to be created showing the actual worse food types by total ecological impact (Fig. Andersson [43] discusses the implications and the limitations of applying a life cycle framework to study food products and packaging systems. From: Nutritional and Health Aspects of Food in Western Europe, 2020, U. Sonesson, ... A. Hospido, in Environmental Assessment and Management in the Food Industry, 2010. Concerns about food safety and the BSE crisis have understandably inhibited previous procedures of recycling animal and food waste, such as supplementing animal feed with rendered animal material. Although this population of chickens is difficult to study, researchers are beginning to gain some understanding of the challenges facing backyard flocks. LCIA, according with ISO 14044 (2006), aims at evaluating the significance of potential environmental impacts based on the LCI flow results. Per capita food waste in North America and Europe is between 95-115 kilograms (kg) per year. Hence a direct environmental comparison, albeit rather crude, can be made between, say, throwing away a few slices of bread, and throwing away the empty plastic bag the bread was packaged in. Yet, some challenges arise from the difficulty of measuring performance across organisations, for example due to non-standardised data. Beyond changes in behavior of the food industry, retailers, and the general public to reduce food wastage, imaginative yet safe systems are required to recycle biological material discarded throughout the meat production chain. All nuts and seeds have high water consumption, as was the case with almonds, but for almonds it can be slightly higher (Barilla, 2016). Consequently the contribution could be higher without benefits. The latter approach was used also in this study. If the primary function of packaging is to protect the food without spoilage, then a packaging option that increases the shelf life of the product is indeed preferable. Companies will increasingly focus LCA on both the product and the packaging; where the impacts of the entire product system are considered to determine where the greatest environmental saving can occur. Generally, benchmarking is an evaluation of organisational products, services and processes in relation to best practice. Also, according to EEA (2016), agricultural activities for production of food, fibers, and fuel in Europe account for 90% of ammonia emissions, 80% of methane emissions, and 50%–80% of nitrogen load in freshwater bodies. Also Eberle and Fels (2016) and Scherhaufer et al. Lamb and beef are the least efficient forms of animal protein production, but one has to keep in mind that these can also be grown on land that is less suitable for other types of agricultural production. In this phase, the normalized results are multiplied with “weight factors” that express the importance intended as critical issues, which is attributed to each environmental problem. As regards the Impacts assessment methods, some of the most used for food packaging systems are: The ILCD 2011 (European Commission's Joint Research Centre, 2010); Classification stage is another mandatory element. Contrarily, the share of avoidable food waste is not lower with the vegetarian diet compared with the baseline, because the vegetarian diet includes significant amounts of fruit and other plant-based food with high food waste amount. Genetic improvement has led to a reduction in greenhouse gas emission for broilers and pigs and global warming potential per kg of animal product in the past 20 years of up to 30%.

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