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gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus nitrogen fixation

An ‘extra-ordinary endophyte’ this bacterium is one of relatively few that has mechanisms to cope with high levels of sucrose, an acidic pH, a wide range of oxygen environments, nitrogen fixation, as well as having respiratory chain attributes that make it a possible candidate eukaryote proto-mitochondria. G. diazotrophicus is able to change its electron transport chain composition during nitrogen fixation. Surveys have indicated that the G. diazotrophicus, although present at all sites, in all parts of the sugarcane plant and in all trash samples examined, it was not present in samples taken from associated forage grasses, cereals or weed species within the sugarcane fields [99]. All carbon and nitrogen sources and oxygen must cross the symbiosome and bacteriod membranes making them crucial to the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis [81]. Bacterial genomes vary a great deal in size ranging from 0.16 megabases (Mb) in Carsonella ruddii [51] to approximately 9.7 Mb in Burkholderia xenovorans [52]. Azotic is the only company offering an “intracellular” strain of this bacteria in non-legumes. In 1988, a fresh impetus arose from the discovery of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (Gd), a non-nodulating, non-rhizobial, nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from the intercellular juice In trying to define these core characteristics, the genome size of 14 strains of the Rhizobiales ranged between 4.9 Mb, exemplified by Mesorhizobium species, up to 9.1 Mb in Bradyrhizobium japonicum [55]. Symbiotic associations of species of Gluconacetobacter have been found in fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster; bees, Aphis mellifera and for G. diazotrophicus, within the gut of the sugarcane mealybug, Saccharicoccus sacchari [36]. Growth of G. diazotrophicus in culture was not affected by nitrate but was reduced in sugarcane plants treated in the field with high levels of nitrate fertilizers [68]. However, it has been suggested that other FeSII proteins, rather than Shethna proteins represent more appropriate candidates for this role [30, 131]. This process would be facilitated by the release from the bacteria of their hydrolytic enzymes in the presence of root exudates containing suitable sugars. An analysis of 350 bacterial species genomes comparing the nature of their association with their host (early, advanced and extreme stages of adaptation) demonstrated a decreasing genome size with increasing levels of host adaptation [56]. G. diazotrophicus has been isolated from arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sweet potato and sweet sorghum [96] and sorghum [17] but survival of G. diazotrophicus in soil appears to be limited. Azotic’s technologies has a strong patent portfolio and an exiting intellectual property pipeline. Alternative approaches however, based on the findings relating to G. diazotrophicus in Brazil in sugarcane offer some prospect for the development of non-legume crop symbiotic nitrogen fixation, not only to increase crop yields but also to potentially reduce nitrogen fertilizer use, and this prospect is now beginning to be realized [12]. Contact our London head office or media team here. However, despite difficulties in achieving colonization [100], G. diazotrophicus has been intentionally inoculated into cotton, calabash (Lagenaria siceraria) [15], maize [101] sugarcane, wheat, rice, oilseed rape, tomato, white clover [24, 102], sugar beet, common beans [103] Arabidopsis [24] and sorghum [104]. G. diazotrophicus has been isolated from Saccharicoccus sacchari, the sugarcane mealybug [70, 109]—which has a host range including many species of grasses (including sorghum, rice and miscanthus as well as sugarcane) and pineapple (CABI Invasive Species Compendium;http//www.cabi.org), which through horizontal transmission, could explain the presence of G. diazotrophicus in these plant species (Table 1.). In sugarcane a number of genes have been found to be differentially expressed in the presence of bacteria [86]. When PCR was used, fragments of the same size as those from G. diazotrophicus genomic DNA were detected in soil samples from sugarcane fields, however, the bacterium could not be re-isolated from micro-propagated sugarcane plants used as a trapping host [92]. The key requirement in assessing these differences among the rhizobia has been the need to gain an understanding of the types of genome essential for nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Copyright © 2015 Azotic Technologies Ltd, Replaces up to 50% of the plant’s nitrogen needs. Subsequent to this, studies confirmed that some varieties of Brazilian sugarcane were capable of obtaining 60–80% of their nitrogen requirements from BNF, highlighting the possibility that under the right conditions, it might be possible to dispense altogether with nitrogen fertilizers for these varieties [1, 3]. Firstly, sucrose: G. diazotrophicus has no sucrose transport system and in high sucrose concentration environments of around 10% the sucrose has a positive effect on nitrogenase activity protecting nitrogenase against inhibition by oxygen [123]. However, there are a number of key attributes that distinguish this bacterium from others and point to the reasons why it is able to achieve the types and levels of impact demonstrated in Figures 1 and 2, when colonizing crop plants. In G. diazotrophicus sucrose tolerance is, at least partially, achieved through genes encoding for the KupA protein [27]. Glucose provides the principle energy source to meet the high-energy demand associated with the conversion of dinitrogen by nitrogenase [134, 135] via the pyrroloquinoline quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in the periplasmic membrane.

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