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siege of damascus 634

Damascus was the first major city of the Byzantine (Roman) empire to fall in the Muslim conquest of Syria. Year 634 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. 2008. Khalid, though not happy, agreed to honor the peace agreement. Osprey Publishing. [40], The dome of Damascus' treasury in the Umayyad Mosque, While the Arabs administered the city of Damascus, the population of Damascus remained mostly Christian—Eastern Orthodox and Monophysite—with a growing community of Arab Muslims from Makkah, Madinah, and the Syrian Desert.[41]. At Jabiyah, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah drove the Byzantines back into the city, while, at the Eastern Gate, the large Byzantine contingent drove the Arabs back. The Siege of Damascus occurred from August to September 634 AD when the army of the Arab Rashidun Caliphate besieged the major Byzantine stronghold of Damascus, Syria. The battle was intense at the Small Gate, which was guarded by commander Yazid and his men. The attacks from the other gates—Jabiya Gate, the Small Gate and the Eastern Gate—were intended to tie down the other Muslim corps so that they could not aid Shurhabil's corps at the Thomas gate. At this point, Thomas commanded a slow and steady withdrawal, and his men were continually showered with arrows. [32] This part of the wall was the strongest, no guard was stationed at the top. Emperor Heraclius concentrated on the defenses of Egypt and Anatolia, creating a buffer-zone in Anatolia west of Caesarea by abandoning all the Byzantine fortifications there. Without the necessary siege equipment, armies of the early Muslim expansion would lay surround a city, denying it supplies until the city's defenders surrendered. Umar removed Khalid from command of the Muslim army and appointed Abu Ubaidah as the new commander in chief. Unsuccessful in breaking the Muslim lines, the Byzantines retreated back to the fortress. That night, a 100-strong Arab contingent under Khalid snuck into the city via the Eastern Gate and opened the gate, allowing the Muslims to stealthily invade Damascus. Thomas was forced to launch a counterattack of his own, drawing men from all sectors of the city to the Gate of Thomas to face Shurahbil ibn Hasana's 5,000 troops. Yazid died of plague in 640 and his younger brother, Mu'awiya I, succeeded him. Yazid had fewer troops but Dharar came to Yazid's aid with his 2,000 cavalry of the Mobile Guard. The peace agreement also stated that the peace would end after three days and that the Muslims could attack after these three days without violating the agreement.[33]. The last of the Roman-Persian Wars ended in 627, when Heraclius concluded a successful campaign against the Persians in Mesopotamia. 2003. In Antioch, Emperor Heraclius learned of the siege, sending 19,000 troops to relieve the city on 9 September. If the Byzantine garrison had sallied out against the Muslim army, historians suspect the defenders would have broken through the Muslim lines and lifted the siege. Khalid did not have enough men to surround the city entirely, so he instead had his sub-commanders station their men outside of the city's gates and blockade the major thoroughfares. He attacked and overthrew the Byzantine defenses of Levant and quickly captured the Ghassanid capital city of Bosra. [24] Early in the third week of September 634, Thomas drew men from all sectors of the city to form a force strong enough to break through the Gate of Thomas. [28], The heaviest fighting occurred at the Thomas gate, where Thomas again commanded the sally in person. Khalid sent her back to her father. The main part of the city was enclosed by a massive 11 m (36 ft) high wall.c[›] [Clarification needed], . [5], Over the next decade, the Persians conquered Palestine and Egypt and Heraclius rebuilt his army, preparing for a new offensive, which he launched in 622. ISBN, "The Islamic world in ascendancy: from the Arab conquests to the siege of Vienna". They met 20 miles (32 km) north of Damascus at Uqab Pass (Eagle Pass) on the Damascus-Emesa road. [Clarification needed] The Muslim armies marched north and laid siege to Damascus. Damascan refugees are given a … Historica Wiki is a FANDOM Games Community. We have also been recommended for educational use by the … Thomas' attack at several gates also gave more flexibility to the operation: if success were achieved in any sector other than the Gate of Thomas, such success could be exploited by sending troops to that sector to achieve the breakthrough. This would make the task of conquering Syria immeasurably more difficult. While Heraclius focused his attention on the internal affairs of his empire, the Sassanid Persians conquered Mesopotamia, overran Syria in 611 AD, and entered Anatolia to occupy Caesarea Mazaca. On September 18 (19 Rajab, 13 Hijrah), a disaffected monophysite bishop of Damascus sent a Greek named Jonah to inform Khalid about a festival celebration in the city that night.e The festivities offered Khalid an opportunity to capture the city in a surprise attack on the relatively lightly defended walls. [25], The terms of the peace agreement were that no one would be enslaved, no harm would be done to the temples, nothing would be taken as booty and that safe passage was given to Thomas, Harbees, and every citizen of Damascus who was not willing to live under Muslim rule. [21], This time Thomas planned to launch simultaneous sorties from four gates. illustrated 2009 edition. However, this siege draws glory away from the Rashidun achievements due to the attention it brings to various inconsistencies in Arab accounts. [8], In Arabia, the Prophet Mohammad had united most of Arabia under a single religious and political authority. By 633, Arabia was firmly united under the central authority of the Caliph in Medina. [22] It has since come to be known as Battle of the pass of Uqab. After the surrender of the city, the commanders disputed the terms of the peace agreement. [30], The Greek, Jonah, who had helped Khalid enter the city by the East Gate, showed him a short-cut to Antioch. His archers rained down a constant stream of arrows against the Arabs as the infantry surged out and into battle.

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