18 (6), 537–545 (2001). Krzyminska S, Koczura R, Mokracka J, Puton T, Kaznowski A. Isolates of the Enterobacter cloacae complex induce apoptosis of human intestinal epithelial cells. This organism affects mostly the vulnerable age groups such as the elderly and the young and can cause prolonged hospitalization in the intensive care unit (ICU) (5). Szabó D, Silveira F, Hujer AM et al. Enterobacter: Chronobacter is the new genus name for this gram-negative bacillus. (11) Mahapatra A, Ghosh SK, Mishra S, Pattnaik D, Pattnaik K, Mohanty SK. Prevalence of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance. . Dalben M, Varkulja G, Basso M et al. 39, 168–172 (2012). Some are resistant to fluoroquinolones (1). , E. cloacae was described for the first time in 1890 by Jordan as Bacillus cloacae, and then underwent numerous taxonomical changes, becoming 'Bacterium cloacae' in 1896 (Lehmann and Neumann), Cloaca cloacae in 1919 (Castellani and Chalmers), it was identified as 'Aerobacter cloacae' in 1923 (Bergey et al. 32, 475–480 (2008). Enterobacter cloacae have been isolated from hands of personnel, endoscopes, blood products, devices for intra-arterial pressure, stethoscopes, albumim, digital thermometers and many more (4). "Reduction of Selenite to Elemental Selenium by Enterobacter Cloacae SLD1a-1." Infections with VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacter cloacae and their correlation with clinical outcome. Benzene biodegradation by indigenous mixed microbial culture: Kinetic modeling and process optimization. Among the Enterobacter aerogenes (i.e., Aerobacter aerogenes) species, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Enterobacter hormaechei have caused sepsis and a severe form of necrotizing meningitis in neonates [129–134]. However, these observations cannot establish these organisms as primary causative agents of the outbreak because the food was improperly stored prior to sampling. Humans are only endangered by the Enterobacter cloacae if their immune systems are weakened, for example as a result of serious previous illnesses or surgical intervention. 66 (1), 95–97 (2007). Dec 2000. p. 5340-5347. E. kobei is named after Kobe City (Japan), where the type strain of this species was isolated. , A 2012 study in which Enterobacter cloacae transplanted into previously germ-free mice resulted in increased obesity when compared with germ-free mice fed an identical diet, suggesting a link between obesity and the presence of Enterobacter gut flora. Characterization of an extended-spectrum betalactamase Enterobacter hormaechei nosocomial outbreak, and other Enterobacter hormaechei misidentified as Cronobacter (Enterobacter) sakazakii. 51, 1223–1227 (2007). Price DJE, Graham DI. 50 (8), 2833–2835 (2006). Cornaglia G, Giamarellou H, Rossolini GM. You can use Aminoglycosides as they have good activity, but they require being combined with another agent to be effective. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. ), are also triggered by the SOS response. cloacae. Naas T, Cattoen C, Bernusset S, Cuzon G, Nordmann P. First Identification of bla IMI-1 in an Enterobacter cloacae clinical isolate from France. Edwards PR, Fife MS. Eleven undescribed Arizona serotypes isolated from man. 54, 969–976 (2010). Current Microbiology. The bacterium can cause pneumonia, septicaemia, urinary tract and wound infections and, in newborns, meningitis. Previous studies investigating colicins E1 and K suggest that their regulation is dependent not only on DNA-damaging agents but also on catabolic repression, stringent response, cell phase, and anaerobiosis. Capsular types of Klebsiella. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Willis and Robinson  reviewed 17 cases of neonatal meningitis caused by E. sakazakii; cerebral abscess or cyst formation developed in 77% of the infants, and 50% of the infants died. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Paauw A, Caspers MP, Schuren FH et al. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. There do not seem to be distinguishing characteristics among infections caused by E. cloacae and E. aerogenes. In each case, he showed that the lethal action is reversed by treatment with trypsin. Updated functional classification of beta-lactamases. “Enterobacter cloacae: Bacteremia, Epidemiology, and Antibiotic Resistance.” Reviews of Infectious Diseases. This organism produces chromosomally encoded Beta-lactamases also called cephalosporinases. The optimal temperature of this bacteria in its mesophilic environment is 37 °C. The infection may be contracted through the skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, or cross-contamination. International Bulletin of Bacteriological Nomenclature and Taxonomy. It was noted that the development of this bacteria was related to the severity of third degree burns and admission into these burn centers. Environmental microbiota represents a natural reservoir for dissemination of clinically relevant metallo-beta-lactamases. Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 9, 999–1002 (2003). Focuses on updated information on the epidemiological and biochemical characteristics of carbapenemases of E. cloacae. Enterobacter strains commonly arise from the endogenous intestinal flora of hospitalized patients but can occur in common source outbreaks or are spread from patient to patient. Pottumarthy S, Moland ES, Jeretschko S, Swanzy SR, Thomson KS, Fritsche TR. Enterobacter cloacae is a bacterium of the genus Enterobacter and a natural component of the human intestinal flora. This mechanism of Enterobacter cloacae is used as a survival strategy by preventing chromate into the cells. 34 (1), 124–137 (2012). Enterobacter nimipressuralis as a cause of pseudobacteremia. This is … Vol 11, No. Type 1 plasmids are small (6–10 kb) and are present in numerous copies per cell. (8), Another recent research study investigated the chromate resistant mechanism of Enterobacter cloacae through atomic force microscopy. “Fatty Acid Competition as a Mechanism by which Enterobacter cloacae Suppresses Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination and Damping-Off.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in us hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. One of the most common symptoms is a watery diarrhea. (19), Another study showed that mutation in the cyaA gene, which encodes for adenylate cyclase in E. cloacae produced a decrease in cucumber root colonization. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. The ampC, ampD and ampR genes were sequenced and analyzed. Enterobacter cloacae is a recognized contaminant of raw milk and dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese. 58, 256–260 (2009). European Journal of Clinical Microbiolog and Infectious Diseases. Another potential reservoir for nosocomial bacteremia is the heparin solution used to irrigate certain intravascular devices continually. Clinical Infectious Diseases. Jacoby G, Cattoir V, Hooper D et al. Farmer JJ III, Asbury MA, Hickman FW, Brenner DJ; Enterobacteriaceae Study Group. 10, 315 (2010). Enterobacter Cloacae Uti And Other Infections, Enterobacter Cloacae Treatment And Enterobacter Cloacae Antibiotics, Common in individuals with compromised immune systems, Hard to distinguish form other bacterial infections, Common infections with this bacterium include those that impact the urinary tract, Can be deadly or cause hospitalization in ICU ward, Treated with antibiotics, but can become resistant to some of them, Signs of severe dehydration such as dry mouth, decreased urination, irritability, or no tears in the eye if vomiting is present for more than 2 or 3 days, There could be a fever more than 102.2 Fahrenheit or 39°C. Some ways that this bacterium can spread include exposure to blood products, the use of endoscopes, touching the hands of medical staff, hospital equipment, dialysis machines, and other contamination. Outbreaks can also be traced back to hands of personnel, endoscopes, blood products, total parenternal nutrition solutions, albumin, and hospital equipment such as stethoscopes and dialysis. They will also cause enterobacter cloacae uti or urinary tract infections. Enterobacter cloacae are nosocomial pathogens that can be acquired through the skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract or derived externally due to the ubiquitous nature. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. This organism is oxidase negative but catalase positive and is facultative anaerobic (13). 46, 847–854 (2008). Rasmussen BA, Bush K, Keeney D et al. 25, 11–25 (2005). Abstract and Introduction Abstract. when a large hybridization group of enteric organisms was isolated and found to be associated with bloodstream infections.. in 2011 to the US DOE Joint Genome Institute (CA, USA; GenBank accession numbers CP003026.1, CP003027.1 and CP003028.1, respectively).
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