Search inside this book for more research materials. Successful fashion marketing depends on understanding consumer desire and responding with appropriate products. The first dedicated fashion magazines appeared in England and France in the late 18th century. Search inside this book for more research materials. Copyright © 1988-2020, IGI Global - All Rights Reserved, Additionally, Enjoy an Additional 5% Pre-Publication Discount on all Forthcoming Reference Books, Learn more in: Visionary Leadership: Learning from Exemplary Organizations. Search our database for more, Full text search our database of 145,100 titles for. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Other factors are external (e.g., major historical events such as wars, revolutions, economic booms or busts, and the feminist movement). Magazine advertising rapidly became a principal marketing tool for the fashion industry. Search our database for more, Full text search our database of 145,100 titles for. Definition of Fashion Retailing: Group of companies, part of the fashion supply chain that goes from the manufacturers to the consumer, offering fashion goods and services, through traditional seasonal spans and/or fast fashion timing, ranging from budget to designer price lines. With millions of Muslim women living in numerous countries worldwide, veiling norms and styles are myriad. In the 19th century, fashion magazines—such as the French La Mode Illustrée, the British Lady’s Realm, and the American Godey’s Lady’s Book—proliferated and flourished. Marketers for companies that do sell their own products at retail are primarily concerned with matching products to their own customer base. The development of effective and inexpensive methods of reproducing photographs in print media in the early 20th century led to the rise of fashion photography and of heavily illustrated fashion magazines such as Vogue. Other women, including those for whom modest garments are obligatory in public, may wear fashionable European styles underneath their more conservative street attire. The dominance of visual media continued in the Internet age, with fashion blogs emerging as an increasingly important means of disseminating fashion information. Individual trendsetters (e.g., Madonna and Diana, princess of Wales) also play a role, as do changes in lifestyle (e.g., new sports, as when skateboarding was introduced in the 1960s) and music (e.g., rock and roll, hip-hop). Merchandising specialists must be able to respond to surges in demand by rapidly acquiring new stocks of the favoured product. The creation of cinema newsreels—short motion pictures of current events—and the rise of television made it possible for people all over the world to see fashion shows and to imitate the fashionable clothing worn by celebrities. Fashion marketing is the process of managing the flow of merchandise from the initial selection of designs to be produced to the presentation of products to retail customers, with the goal of maximizing a company’s sales and profitability. Fashion retailing, marketing, and merchandising. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, fashion shows became more elaborate and theatrical, were held in larger venues with specially constructed elevated runways (“catwalks”) for the models, and played an increasingly prominent role in the presentation of new fashions. Red-carpet events such as awards ceremonies provide an opportunity for celebrities to be photographed wearing designer fashions, thus providing valuable publicity to the designers. Customers shopping for clothing at a retail store. The couture shows, held twice a year in Paris (in January and July) by the official syndicate of couture designers (comprising the most exclusive and expensive fashion houses), present outfits that might be ordered by potential clients but which often are intended more to showcase the designers’ ideas about fashion trends and brand image. A consumer goods market focused particularly on clothing, footwear and accessories, which is characterised by short lifecycles, intensive competition and fickle consumers. One significant development in the field of ethno-religious dress was widespread adoption of the hijab (religiously appropriate attire) among Muslim women not only in the Middle East but throughout the Islamic world in the early 21st century. However, there are literally dozens of other Fashion Weeks internationally—from Tokyo to São Paolo. In imitation of Parisian couturiers, ready-to-wear designers in other countries also began mounting fashion shows for an audience that combined private clients, journalists, and buyers. Fashion designers and manufacturers promote their clothes not only to retailers (such as fashion buyers) but also to the media (fashion journalists) and directly to customers. The fashion designer is an important factor, but so also is the individual consumer who chooses, buys, and wears clothes, as well as the language and imagery that contribute to how consumers think about fashion. An inventory-tracking computer program in a department store in London, for example, can trigger an automatic order to a production facility in Shanghai for a certain quantity of garments of a specified type and size to be delivered in a matter of days. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. In the standard definition of the term, merchandising involves selling the right product, at the right price, at the right time and place, to the right customers. Looking for research materials? Examples include the design, production, and marketing of saris in India and of boubous in Senegal. Successful fashion marketing depends on understanding consumer desire and responding with appropriate products. For some, veiling can mean a withdrawal from the vicissitudes of fashion altogether. Photographs and videos of fashion shows are instantaneously transmitted to mass-market producers who produce inexpensive clothing copied from or inspired by the runway designs. Black Friday Sale! Some factors are intrinsic to fashion, which involves variation for the sake of novelty (e.g., when hemlines have been low for a while, they will rise). Closely related to marketing is merchandising, which attempts to maximize sales and profitability by inducing consumers to buy a company’s products. Media of all kinds are essential to the marketing of fashion. Once the clothes have been designed and manufactured, they need to be sold. Ready-to-wear fashion shows, separately presenting both women’s and men’s wear, are held during spring and fall “Fashion Weeks,” of which the most important take place in Paris, Milan, New York, and London. Definition of Fashion Retail: A consumer goods market focused particularly on clothing, footwear and accessories, which is characterised by short lifecycles, intensive competition and fickle consumers. The fashion industry thrives by being diverse and flexible enough to gratify any consumer’s desire to embrace or even to reject fashionability, however that term might be defined. Customers shopping for and purchasing clothing at a retail store. To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research. Retailers make initial purchases for resale three to six months before the customer is able to buy the clothes in-store. Marketing operates at both the wholesale and retail levels. Featuring articles, hand-coloured illustrations (known as fashion plates), and advertisements, fashion magazines—together with other developments such as the sewing machine, department stores, and ready-to-wear clothing produced in standard sizes—played a significant role in promoting the democratization of fashion in the modern era. To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research. Copyright © 1988-2020, IGI Global - All Rights Reserved, Additionally, Enjoy an Additional 5% Pre-Publication Discount on all Forthcoming Reference Books, Learn more in: Frontline Employees' Self-Perception of Ageism, Sexism, and Lookism: Comparative Analyses of Prejudice and Discrimination in Fashion and Food Retailing, Learn more in: Augmented Reality as a Tool to Enhance the Experiential Value of Online Shopping: The Future of Fashion Retailing. But how are clothes to get from the manufacturer to the customer? By the early 20th century, not only couture houses but also department stores regularly put on fashion shows with professional models. The fashion system involves all the factors that are involved in the entire process of fashion change. The following are some steps that will guide you to a career in fashion retailing: Most people in the world today wear what can be described as “world fashion,” a simplified and very low-cost version of Western clothing, often a T-shirt with pants or a skirt, manufactured on a mass scale.
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